How to Write Mod_rewrite Rule In .Htaccess?

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To write a mod_rewrite rule in .htaccess, you need to start by enabling the rewrite engine in your .htaccess file by adding the following line:

RewriteEngine On

Next, you can write your rewrite rules using the RewriteRule directive. This directive has three main parts: the pattern to match, the substitution to replace the matched pattern, and any flags to modify the rule's behavior.

For example, if you want to redirect all requests for a specific file to a different file, you can use the following rule:

RewriteRule ^oldfile.html$ newfile.html [L,R=301]

In this rule, the pattern "^oldfile.html$" matches any request for "oldfile.html". The substitution "newfile.html" specifies the new file to which the request should be redirected. The [L] flag indicates that this is the last rule to be processed, and the [R=301] flag triggers a permanent redirect.

You can add more complex rules using regular expressions, conditionals, and other rewrite flags to customize the behavior of your mod_rewrite rules. Remember to test your rules carefully to ensure they work as intended before deploying them on your website.

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What is the RewriteRule directive in mod_rewrite?

The RewriteRule directive in mod_rewrite is used in the Apache HTTP Server to specify rules for URL rewriting. It allows you to define patterns that need to be matched in the requested URL and specify how it should be rewritten or redirected. This can be useful for creating search engine friendly URLs, redirecting users to different pages, and other similar tasks.

What is the purpose of mod_rewrite in .htaccess?

The purpose of mod_rewrite in .htaccess is to rewrite URLs in a more user-friendly and search engine-friendly format. It allows website owners to create custom URLs that are easier for visitors to remember and understand, while also improving the website's overall search engine optimization (SEO) by making the URLs more descriptive and relevant to the content on the page. Additionally, mod_rewrite can be used to redirect URLs, hide file extensions, and perform other URL manipulations to improve the user experience and navigation on a website.

What are some alternative methods for URL rewriting besides mod_rewrite in .htaccess?

  1. Using Apache's RewriteMap directive to define a custom rewriting function in the Apache configuration file.
  2. Using mod_proxy to redirect requests to a different server or domain.
  3. Using JavaScript to dynamically rewrite URLs on the client-side.
  4. Using a reverse proxy server, such as Nginx, to handle URL rewriting.
  5. Using a content management system or framework that has built-in URL rewriting capabilities.
  6. Using a custom routing system in your application code to handle URL rewriting.

What is the meaning of the [QSA] flag in mod_rewrite rules?

The [QSA] flag in mod_rewrite rules stands for "Query String Append". When you use this flag in a mod_rewrite rule, it tells Apache to append the query string from the original URL to the rewritten URL. This can be useful when you want to preserve any query parameters that were present in the original URL and pass them along to the rewritten URL.

What are some examples of complex mod_rewrite rules and their applications?

  1. Redirecting old URLs to new URLs:

RewriteRule ^old-url$ /new-url [R=301,L]

This rule redirects any requests for "old-url" to "new-url" with a 301 status code, indicating a permanent redirect.

  1. Rewriting query parameters to user-friendly URLs:

RewriteRule ^product/([0-9]+)/?$ product.php?id=$1 [NC,L]

This rule converts a URL like "" into "", allowing for cleaner and more readable URLs.

  1. Blocking access to certain directories:

RewriteRule ^private/ - [F]

This rule blocks access to any URLs that contain "/private/", preventing unauthorized users from accessing sensitive information.

  1. Rewriting URLs with multiple variables:

RewriteRule ^category/([^/]+)/page/(\d+)/?$ category.php?name=$1&page=$2 [NC,L]

This rule converts a URL like "" into "", allowing for dynamic pagination of products within a specific category.

  1. Redirecting non-www URLs to www URLs:

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www. [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]

This rule redirects any requests for the non-www version of a domain to the www version, ensuring consistent URL formatting and avoiding duplicate content issues.

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