How to Install Nginx From Source?

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To install nginx from source, follow these steps:

  1. Download the latest stable version of nginx from the official website ( or using the following command: wget{version}.tar.gz
  2. Extract the downloaded tar.gz file using the following command: tar -zxvf nginx-{version}.tar.gz
  3. Open the terminal and navigate to the extracted nginx directory: cd nginx-{version}
  4. Before proceeding with the installation, you'll need to have essential development tools such as gcc and make installed on your system. Install them using the package manager specific to your operating system.
  5. Configure the nginx installation by running the following command: ./configure You can also add additional flags to customize the installation options. For example, to specify the installation prefix, use: ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx
  6. Build the nginx binary and modules by running the make command: make
  7. Install nginx and its modules by executing the following command with root privileges: make install By default, nginx will be installed in the /usr/local/nginx directory. If you specified a different prefix during configuration, adjust the path accordingly.
  8. Start nginx using the command: /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx You can now access your nginx server by navigating to http://localhost in your web browser.

Note: It is advisable to consult the official documentation for any specific requirements or additional steps that may be necessary based on your operating system and deployment environment.

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What tools and libraries are required for compiling nginx from source?

To compile nginx from source, the following tools and libraries are typically required:

  1. GCC (GNU Compiler Collection): A compiler system used to compile and build the source code.
  2. GNU Make: A build automation tool used to manage the build process.
  3. OpenSSL: A library providing the SSL/TLS protocol implementation, required for enabling HTTPS support.
  4. PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions): A library used for regular expression pattern matching with nginx's rewrite module.
  5. zlib: A software library used for data compression; required for enabling gzip compression in nginx.
  6. Brotli: An open-source compression algorithm library developed by Google; optional but recommended for enabling Brotli compression in nginx.
  7. zlib development headers: Header files and libraries required for linking against the zlib library during the build process.
  8. PCRE development headers: Header files and libraries required for linking against the PCRE library during the build process.
  9. Optional libraries: Depending on the specific modules and features you intend to include in nginx, additional libraries may be required. These could include libraries for integrating with specific databases (e.g., MySQL, PostgreSQL), virtualization technologies (e.g., ngx_http_fastcgi_module, ngx_http_memcached_module), etc.

Additionally, you may need administrative or root privileges to install the necessary dependencies and to perform the compilation and installation process. It is important to refer to the official nginx documentation and the BUILD document provided with the nginx source code for the specific requirements and instructions related to your target platform.

Are there any additional configuration files that need to be modified after installation?

The additional configuration files that may need to be modified after installation vary depending on the specific software or system you are referring to. Some common examples include:

  1. Web server software (such as Apache or Nginx): After installation, you may need to modify configuration files like httpd.conf or nginx.conf to customize settings related to virtual hosts, ports, modules, etc.
  2. Database server software (such as MySQL or PostgreSQL): You might need to configure settings like database user permissions, bind address, memory usage, etc. in files like my.cnf or postgresql.conf.
  3. Operating system configuration files: For Unix-like systems, various settings can be customized in files such as /etc/hosts (network configuration), /etc/fstab (file systems), or /etc/ssh/sshd_config (SSH server configuration).
  4. Application-specific configuration files: Many software applications have their own configuration files located in directories like /etc, /usr/local/etc, or within the application's installation directory. Examples include php.ini for PHP applications or application.conf for a specific framework.

It is crucial to refer to the documentation and guides provided by the software or system to determine which configuration files need modification after installation.

What is the process of installing and configuring nginx after compilation?

The process of installing and configuring Nginx after compilation typically involves the following steps:

  1. Installation: Move the compiled Nginx binary to the desired installation directory, e.g., /usr/local/nginx. Create a symlink to the binary in a common executable directory, such as /usr/bin or /usr/sbin, for easy access. Create a system user to run the Nginx process, usually named nginx.
  2. Configuration: Create a configuration file, often located at /etc/nginx/nginx.conf, to define server settings and other options. Edit the configuration file to specify the desired server blocks, proxies, or load balancing configurations. Customize various settings such as log locations, SSL certificates, gzip compression, etc.
  3. Starting Nginx: Start Nginx by running the installed binary with the specified configuration file, e.g., nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf. You can also add appropriate scripts for system startup or supervising tools like Systemd, init.d, or Upstart.
  4. Testing and Troubleshooting: Verify the Nginx installation by accessing a web page served by Nginx using a web browser. Check the Nginx error log file, usually located at /var/log/nginx/error.log, for any potential issues or error messages. Validate the Nginx configuration file's syntax by running nginx -t to detect any configuration mistakes.

Additionally, it's worth noting that there are package managers like apt or yum available on various Linux distributions that simplify the process by automatically handling the installation and initial configuration of Nginx.

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Are there any security considerations when installing nginx from source?

Yes, there are several security considerations when installing nginx from source. Here are some important ones:

  1. Up-to-date software: Ensure that you are downloading the latest stable release from the official nginx website. Older versions may have known security vulnerabilities.
  2. Compile-time options: While configuring the build, carefully select the modules you need and disable unnecessary features. This reduces the attack surface and minimizes potential vulnerabilities.
  3. User and group configuration: During installation, create a dedicated user and group for running nginx processes. Assign the minimum required privileges to these accounts to mitigate the impact of any potential security breaches.
  4. File and directory permissions: Set secure file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized access. Restrict access to configuration files, log files, and other sensitive system resources.
  5. SELinux/AppArmor: If your server has SELinux or AppArmor enabled, ensure that the policies are properly configured to allow nginx to function correctly without compromising system security.
  6. Secure configuration: Take care when configuring nginx to ensure that your web server is securely serving content. Use secure SSL/TLS configurations, employ proper access controls, and implement secure communication protocols.
  7. Regular updates and monitoring: Stay updated with security patches for nginx by regularly checking for new releases and applying updates promptly. Additionally, monitor the nginx security mailing list and other relevant sources for any security advisories or vulnerabilities.
  8. Regular auditing: Conduct regular security audits of your nginx installation to identify any potential vulnerabilities, misconfigurations, or security weaknesses. Implement intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDS/IPS) for added security.

Remember, installing nginx from source gives you flexibility but also places the responsibility of maintaining security on you. Keeping the software up-to-date and implementing strong security measures are crucial to ensure a secure environment for your web applications.

What is the recommended method for updating an existing installation of nginx from source?

The recommended method for updating an existing installation of NGINX from source depends on how you initially installed NGINX. Here are the general steps:

  1. Check the current version: Run the following command to determine the current version of NGINX installed: nginx -v
  2. Download the latest source code: Visit the NGINX website ( and download the latest stable version of NGINX source code. Extract the downloaded archive.
  3. Stop NGINX: Before updating, stop the NGINX service using the appropriate command for your system. For example: sudo systemctl stop nginx
  4. Configure with the existing configuration: Navigate to the extracted NGINX source code directory and run the following command to configure NGINX with the existing configuration: ./configure --prefix=/path/to/existing/nginx --with-config-file-path=/path/to/existing/nginx/nginx.conf Replace /path/to/existing/nginx with the correct location of your existing NGINX installation and configuration.
  5. Build and install NGINX: Run the following commands to build and install NGINX: make sudo make install
  6. Start NGINX: After the installation completes, start the NGINX service again: sudo systemctl start nginx
  7. Verify the update: Check the NGINX version again to ensure that the update was successful: nginx -v

Note: The above steps assume that NGINX was initially installed from source using the default configuration. If you made any customizations to the NGINX configuration during the initial installation, you may need to reapply those changes after updating.

What are some common errors that can occur during the compilation process and how can they be resolved?

There are several common errors that can occur during the compilation process. Here are some examples:

  1. Syntax Errors: These occur when the code violates the language's grammar rules. To resolve syntax errors, carefully review the code and fix any missing or misplaced symbols, incorrect syntax, or typographical errors.
  2. Semantic Errors: These errors occur when the code is grammatically correct but doesn't follow the intended logic. To resolve semantic errors, thoroughly analyze the code, identify the logic flaws, and modify the code accordingly.
  3. Linker Errors: These errors occur when the compiler cannot find the references to functions or variables that are declared but not defined. To resolve linker errors, ensure that all the necessary functions and libraries are included and correctly linked.
  4. Compiler Warnings: These are not actual errors but warnings that indicate potential issues in the code, such as unused variables or deprecated functions. Pay attention to these warnings and address them to improve code quality.
  5. Runtime Errors: These errors occur during the execution of the program, resulting in abnormal program termination. Common examples include null pointer dereference, divide-by-zero, or out-of-bounds array access. To resolve runtime errors, analyze the code, identify the root cause, and fix the logic or handle the exceptional cases appropriately.
  6. Memory Leaks: Memory leaks happen when allocated memory is not freed, resulting in excessive memory consumption. To resolve memory leaks, ensure that all dynamically allocated memory is freed when it is no longer needed, or use automated tools like garbage collectors to manage memory.
  7. Platform-specific Errors: Sometimes, certain code may not be compatible with the target platform or operating system. These errors can be resolved by making the code platform-independent or by using platform-specific code and features.

To resolve these and other errors, it is important to carefully review the error messages provided by the compiler, use debugging tools to identify the root cause, consult documentation and online resources, ask for help from colleagues or online communities, and practice good coding practices to minimize errors in the first place.

Can I install nginx from source on Windows?

Yes, you can install Nginx from source on Windows. However, it is worth noting that building Nginx from source on Windows is more complex compared to other operating systems like Linux. Additionally, Nginx is primarily designed and optimized for running on Unix-like systems.

If you still want to install Nginx from source on Windows, you will need to follow these general steps:

  1. Set up the necessary software and tools: Install a C compiler like MinGW-w64, Perl, and other required dependencies.
  2. Download the Nginx source code: Visit the official Nginx website or its GitHub repository to download the latest source code.
  3. Extract the source code: Once downloaded, extract the source code to a directory of your choice.
  4. Configure Nginx: Open a command prompt, navigate to the directory where you extracted the source code, and run the configure script with appropriate parameters to configure Nginx for Windows. You might need to customize the configuration to fit your requirements.
  5. Build Nginx: Use the make command to compile the Nginx source code.
  6. Install Nginx: After a successful build, use the make install command to install Nginx.

Keep in mind that the process may vary depending on the specific version of Nginx and the tools you choose to use. It is recommended to refer to the official Nginx documentation or community resources for detailed instructions and troubleshooting information related to building Nginx from source on Windows.

What are some best practices for managing nginx installations from source?

  1. Keep track of your configurations: Maintain a separate copy of your nginx.conf file and any other custom configurations and keep a backup. It ensures that you don't lose any customizations during upgrades or reinstallations.
  2. Use version control: Create a repository for your nginx configurations and use version control systems like Git or Mercurial. It allows you to track changes, roll back to previous versions, and collaborate with others effectively.
  3. Compile with necessary modules: Before compiling nginx from source, identify the required modules as per your needs and add them during the compilation process. This ensures that you have all the required features enabled in your installation.
  4. Update regularly: Stay up to date with the latest releases of nginx. Regularly check for security patches, bug fixes, and new features. Upgrading to newer versions ensures that you are running a stable and secure nginx installation.
  5. Automate deployment and upgrades: Use automation tools such as Ansible, Chef, or Puppet to deploy and manage your nginx installations. Automating the deployment process ensures consistency, reduces manual errors, and makes updates and upgrades easier.
  6. Monitor and log: Set up monitoring and logging for your nginx installations. Monitor server performance, traffic, and potential issues using tools like Nagios, Zabbix, or Prometheus. Collect and analyze logs to troubleshoot problems and detect anomalies.
  7. Secure your installation: Implement security best practices such as using secure SSL/TLS configurations, enabling firewalls, limiting access to sensitive directories, and using strong passwords. Regularly review and update your security measures.
  8. Configure resource limits: Adjust resource limits based on your server's capacity and expected workload. Limit the maximum number of connections per IP, set worker process limits, and fine-tune other parameters to optimize performance and prevent resource exhaustion.
  9. Set up a testing environment: Create a separate server or virtual machine for testing and validating your configurations and changes before implementing them on production servers. This helps identify any issues or conflicts before affecting live systems.
  10. Document and share knowledge: Maintain detailed documentation of your nginx setup, configurations, and any customizations. Share this knowledge and collaborate with other team members or the community through wikis or forums. This ensures that the knowledge is accessible and helps others troubleshoot issues or make improvements.

Remember to always refer to the official nginx documentation for the most accurate and up-to-date information.

How long does the compilation process usually take?

The duration of the compilation process can vary widely depending on various factors such as the size and complexity of the codebase, the programming language used, the efficiency of the compiler, and the hardware on which it is executed. In simple cases, compiling a small program can take just a few seconds, while compiling larger and more complex projects can range from a few minutes to several hours.

For example, compiling a small C program may take a few seconds to complete, whereas compiling a large C++ project with many dependencies and multiple source files can take several minutes. Additionally, compiling software written in languages like Java or C# might involve additional steps such as bytecode generation or just-in-time compilation, which can also impact the overall compilation time.

Moreover, certain compiler optimizations or build settings can affect the compilation time. Enabling more aggressive optimization levels may increase the compilation time but can result in faster-executing code.

It's important to note that build systems, such as Make or CMake, can also help in speeding up the compilation process by evaluating only the modified or dependent files instead of recompiling the entire codebase.

Overall, the compilation process duration can vary significantly based on several factors, so it is challenging to provide a specific timeframe without considering the specific context.

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